India won Independence on 15th August 1947 AD after a prolonged struggle for freedom. After Independence from British Rule, all the 19 States and three Chief ships in Rajputana acceded to the Indian Union through the instruments of accession executed in accordance with the Government of India Act, 1935, as adapted by the India (Provisional Constitution) Order, 1947.

The Integration of Rajasthan took place in phases. In the first phase, Matsya Union was the first State to be formed in Rajasthan with the integration of Alwar, Bharatpur, Dholpur and Karauli. In the second phase, Rajasthan as a Union consisting of nine states of Kota, Tonk, Bundi, Jhalawar, Pratapgarh, Dungarpur, Banswara, Kishangarh, Shahpura, and two Chiefships of Lawa and Kushalgarh was inaugurated. This union was joined by Udaipur. In the third phase, Jaipur, Jodhpur, Bikaner and Jaisalmer also joined the Union of State. Jaipur was made as the capital. In the fourth phase, the four rulers of the Matsya Union, viz, Alwar, Bharatpur, Dholpur, Karauli merged into Greater Rajasthan. In the fifth phase of formation of Rajasthan major part of Sirohi merged in Rajasthan while Abu remained in Bombay. In the last and sixth phase, following the implementation of the recommendations of States Reorganisation Commission, Abu taluka was also merged with Rajasthan. Similarly, Ajmer-Merwara which was a British Province before Independence and retained as Part C State after promulgation of the Constitution, was also merged with Rajasthan. This completed the process and stages of formation of present Rajasthan.

Maharaja Sawai Man Singh of Jaipur became the Rajpramukh on 30th  March 1949 AD. The first General Elections were held in 1952 AD and since then there is an elected Chief Minister.

On the basis of the recommendations of the States Reorganisation Commission, the institution of Rajpramukh was abolished vide 7th  constitutional amendment with effect from 1st  November 1956 AD. Shri Gurumukh Nihal Singh was appointed as the first Governor of Rajasthan on 25th  October 1956 AD.

Presently ​Sh. Kalyan Singh is the Governor of Rajasthan. He assumed the office of the Governor on 4th September, 2014.